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Types of Forests

Forest in the state of Kedah is a part of Tropical Rain Forest which is one of the rich and complex ecosystem in the world. Overall, Tropical Rain Forest can be divided into seven (7) types of forest based on their altitude from sea level:-

  • Mangrove Forest

  • Peat Swamp Forest

  • Lowland Dipterocarp Forest

  • Hill Dipterocarp Forest

  • Upperhill Dipterocarp Forest

  • Oak Montana Forest

  • Ericaceous Forest

Pokok Tongkat Ali

'Tongkat Ali'


Forests Areas


Total area of 36 Permanent Forest Reserve that has been gazzetted since 1929 in the state of Kedah at the end of 1997 is 307,035 hectares that is about 32% of the whole state area. Apart from that the State Government also agrees to approve 10 other areas as Permanent Forest Reserve which is estimated about 35,567 hectares.  If that is taken into account, then the total area of the Permanent Forest Reserve in Kedah will be 342,602 hectares or 36% of the state area.

Permanent Forest Reserve

As required by the National Forestry Policy, every states should have sufficient Permanent Forest Reserve areas for the purpose of protection (Protection Forest), harvesting (Production Forest) and for recreation purposes (Amenity Forest).

The state of Kedah has two (2) types of forest namely Land Forest and Mangrove Forest.

The total forest area that can be logged in Permanent Forest Reserve as fixed by National Forestry Council is 2,860 hectares per annum. In 1997, the total production of timbers for the whole Kedah state is 221,257 cubic meters.

Mangrove Forest at Merbok Forest Reserve

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